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Ecological aspects of deep-sea mining

Joint Action Facts
Action period: February 2013
Funding: € 13,200,000
Strategic area:
  • Exploring the Deep-Sea
Type of action:
  • Accessing or sharing of marine infrastructures
  • Procedures or agreements for transnational access and sharing of infrastructures
Lead countries:
  • Germany
More Information
Secretariat Contact:

John Hanus

E-mail: hanus@deutsche-meeresforschung.de

Tel. +32 (0) 2 733 89 48

About

The JPI Oceans action 'Ecological aspects of deep-sea mining' aims at assessing the long-term impacts of polymetallic nodule mining on the deep-sea environment. Core of the action is the research project ‘MiningImpact’ which conducted three marine research campaigns in 2015 on the RV Sonne visiting several license areas and two Areas of Particular Environmental Interest (APEIs) in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) as well as the DISCOL benthic impact experiment in the Peru Basin.

Objectives

Jointly analyse the long-term ecological consequences of deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining to provide the knowledge base and inform the development of the international regulation regime of deep sea mining activities by: 
  • Predicting the ecological, biogeochemical and hydrodynamic consequences of a mining impact. 
  • Testing a range of modern rapid assessment methods and monitoring techniques for defining the ecosystem status. 
  • Communicating the results to stakeholders and policymakers. 
  • Conducting a comparative baseline study across different deep-sea environments (e.g. trophic states and seamounts)

Impact

The action and its research project 'MiningImpact' are expected to improve our understanding of deep-sea ecosystems and the impact of mining thereon. The project has not only attracted interest from the the G7 Science Ministers in their Communiqué from October 2015, but it is also delivering input into the development of the international Mining Code (set of regulations for the exploitation of polymetallic nodules in the deep seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction), which the International Seabed Authority is in the process of negotiating. At the 22nd Session of the Authority in July 2016, MiningImpact presented these results in order to ensure that the international deep sea mining regime is built on a solid scientific basis and the best available knowledge.

Scientists involved in the project also published the results from the recent research campaign in Nature, demonstrating that polymetallic nodule fields are hotspots of abundance and diversity for a highly vulnerable abyssal fauna. 

Background

Global interest in the exploration and exploitation of deep-sea minerals is on the rise. Enabled by technological advances and driven by geopolitical, economic and scientific motivations, public and private alike are increasingly venturing to the edges of the continental shelves and into areas beyond national jurisdiction in search of new resources. However, deep-sea ecosystems and the potential effects of mining activities on them are poorly understood. Therefore, member countries of JPI Oceans decided to launch a joint research activity in the field.
 
The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) provided 118 days of ship time for onsite research in the Pacific on the RV SONNE. Over the course of three cruises, researchers from 11 countries mapped habitats, studied deep sea ecosystems and investigated their functioning in addition to predicting and identifying the environmental implications of nodule and sediment removal, sediment plume dispersion and re-deposition caused by mining activities. The project started in January 2015 and will run for 36 months with an overall budget of approximately €9.5m. Following the cruises which were finalised in October 2015, scientists are evaluating the collected data on-shore in the participating institutes.
Publications joint actions

Purser, A., Marcon, Y., Hoving, H. J. T., Vecchione, M., Piatkowski, U., Eason, D., Bluhm, H. and Boetius, A. (2016) Association of deep-sea incirrate octopods with manganese crusts and nodule fields in the Pacific Ocean Current Biology, 26 (24). R1268-R1269. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.052 

Vanreusel, A., Hilario, A., Ribeiro, P. A., Menot, L. and Arbizu, P. M. (2016) Threatened by mining, polymetallic nodules are required to preserve abyssal epifauna Scientific Reports, 6 (26808). DOI 10.1038/srep26808 

Participating countries

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French Research Institute for Exploration of the Sea (Ifremer)

Contact: Gilles Lericolais

flagUNITED KINGDOMUNITED KINGDOM

Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)

Contact: Caron Montgomery

flagITALYITALY

National Research Council (CNR)

Contact: Emilio Fortunato Campana

flagNETHERLANDSNETHERLANDS

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Contact: Josef F. Stuefer

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPOLANDPOLAND

Polish Academy of Sciences; Institute of Hydroengineering (IBW PAN)

Contact: Grzegorz Różyński

flagPORTUGALPORTUGAL

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Rita Silva

flagROMANIAROMANIA

National Authority for Scientific Research, Directorate for European Integration and International Cooperation

Contact: Viorel Vulturescu

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

MiningImpact

Project Facts
Project period: January 2015 - December 2017
Funding: € 13,200,000
Strategic area:
  • Exploring the Deep-Sea
More Information
Project coordinator:

Dr. Matthias Haeckel
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
Phone: +49-431-600-2123
Email: mhaeckel(at)geomar.de

Secretariat contact:

John Hanus
E-mail: hanus@deutsche-meeresforschung.de
Tel. +32 (0) 2 733 89 48

Project website: click here to visit

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About

The JPI Oceans project ‘MiningImpact’ aims at assessing the long-term impacts of polymetallic nodule mining on the deep-sea environment. Core of the project are three marine research campaigns conducted in 2015 on the RV Sonne visiting several license areas and two Areas of Particular Environmental Interest (APEIs) in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) as well as the DISCOL benthic impact experiment in the Peru Basin.  

Objectives

Jointly analyse the long-term ecological consequences of deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining to provide the knowledge base and inform the development of the international regulation regime of deep sea mining activities by: 
  • Predicting the ecological, biogeochemical and hydrodynamic consequences of a mining impact. 
  • Testing a range of modern rapid assessment methods and monitoring techniques for defining the ecosystem status. 
  • Communicating the results to stakeholders and policymakers. 
  • Conducting a comparative baseline study across different deep-sea environments (e.g. trophic states and seamounts)

Impact

The main research questions addressed by ‘MiningImpact’ are:
  • How did the deep-sea ecosystem (species biodiversity, community structure, biogeochemical functioning) in various disturbed areas in the CCZ and DISCOL evolve several decades after the impact? 
  • Can APEIs and seamounts fulfill their anticipated role as conservation areas for nodule-associated species? 
  • How large is the expected spatial and temporal footprint of deep-sea mining operations? 
  • What is the long-range connectivity of species in the CCZ and how is it affected by mining?

 

The first findings of the project (as of July 2016) were:
  • Nodule ecosystems consist of a highly diverse fauna of sessile and mobile species 
  • Faunal communities show high variability on small spatial scales • Benthic fauna differs widely between seamounts and nodule habitats 
  • Disturbance impacts on nodule ecosystems last for many decades and include all ecosystem compartments and functions 
  • Nodule mining leads to a persistent reduction in biogeochemical remineralization processes and production potentials of seafloor communities
  • Polymetallic nodules are required to preserve abyssal biodiversity.
Funding partners

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French Research Institute for Exploration of the Sea (Ifremer)

Contact: Gilles Lericolais

flagUNITED KINGDOMUNITED KINGDOM

Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)

Contact: Caron Montgomery

flagITALYITALY

National Research Council (CNR)

Contact: Emilio Fortunato Campana

flagNETHERLANDSNETHERLANDS

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Contact: Josef F. Stuefer

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPOLANDPOLAND

Polish Academy of Sciences; Institute of Hydroengineering (IBW PAN)

Contact: Grzegorz Różyński

flagPORTUGALPORTUGAL

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Rita Silva

flagROMANIAROMANIA

National Authority for Scientific Research, Directorate for European Integration and International Cooperation

Contact: Viorel Vulturescu

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

Ecological Aspects of Microplastics

Joint Action Facts
Action period: February 2013
Funding: € 7,700,000
Strategic area:
  • Interdisciplinary Research for Good Environmental Status
Type of action:
  • Joint call
Lead countries:
  • Germany
More Information
Secretariat Contact:

John Hanus
E-mail: hanus@deutsche-meeresforschung.de
Tel. +32 (0) 2 626 16 77

About

The pilot action Ecological Aspects of Microplastics was proposed by Germany in the Management Board of February 2013. In an iterative process scientific experts together with the members of the Management Board (MB) have defined the scope of this pilot action as comprising methods, monitoring and effects of microplastics. Following a bibliometric study, foresight exercise and methods workshop, ten member countries published a joint call in 2015 of 7.7 million Euro. Four projects were selected for funding from January 2016 for a three year period.

  • BASEMAN - Defining the baselines and standards for microplastics analyses in European waters
  • EPHEMARE - Ecotoxicological effects of microplastics in marine ecosystems
  • PLASTOX - Direct and indirect ecotoxicological impacts of microplastics on marine organisms
  • WEATHER-MIC - How microplastic weathering changes its transport, fate and toxicity in the marine environment

Objectives

The action aims to take stock of, evaluate and improve current methods for microplastic research. Given the relatively recent emergence of microplastic research, there is a lack of harmonised and validated research methodologies for the quantification and qualification of plastic particles from selected matrices (sediment, biota and water column). The pilot action seeks to assure and control the quality of current assessment methods with the aim of developing robust and cost-effective research methods and protocols, and ultimately, comparable and validated microplastics data.
 
Furthermore, the pilot action aims to improve our understanding of the impacts of microplastics. While several studies have already demonstrated harmful effects of plastic particles, the (ecotoxicological) impacts on organisms, populations and ecosystems are still understudied. The action aims to explore the risks associated with plastics in the marine environment, inter alia, by further examining the mechanisms of how plastic particles are taken up and passed along the trophic chain, thus potentially entering the human food chain.

Impact

So far a variety of methods for the quantification of micro-plastics exist which basically do not allow quantitative comparisons of the existing studies. It is expected that the pilot action will enable the standardisation of the methodologies for the identification and quantification of micro-plastics in the marine environment. 
  • Validation and harmonisation of research methodologies and protocols for microplastics research. 
  • Improved capacity to identify and quantify microplastic particles in the marine environment. 
  • Furthered the understanding of the (ecotoxicological) effects of plastic particles on marine organisms and systems

Next steps

The projects will meet for their annual meeting at the next JPI Oceans conference in the fall of 2017.

Background

Microplastics are persistent, ubiquitous and have a high potential to cause physical and toxicological harm. Microplastics have been identified as an artificial substrate which could affect ecological processes and facilitate transportation of invasive species. However, knowledge about the origin, abundance and distribution of microplastics in marine systems is still limited. Furthermore, the toxicological and ecological effects on marine organisms and ultimately on human health are also insufficiently studied. Hence, for the protection of marine habitats and the safety of marine resources and seafood, JPI Oceans Member Countries decided to launch a pilot action in the field, which included:
 

Bibliometric Study

 JPI Oceans conducted a bibliometric study which revealed a map of strong national research clusters connected in international and global networks. The study was performed as a scoping tool and to provide a baseline for further monitoring of the expanding research field 
 

Foresight exercise in microplastics 

In order to support the development of the pilot action, the CSA Oceans project conducted a thematic foresight exercise in microplastics. The exercise developed a roadmap for microplastics research for Europe, identifying four research areas, which were used to inform the scientific orientation of the Pilot Action. 

Best practice guidelines 

On behalf of JPI Oceans, Ghent University, with the support of the Flemish Government, hosted an international scientific experts workshop on microplastics in January 2015. The workshop reviewed the current state of science and identified best practices for methodologies, in particular with a view to developing a risk assessment framework. 

Joint Call on microplastics 

Ten Member Countries of JPI Oceans launched a joint call on microplastics in January 2015 with an overall budget of approx. €7.5m. Four projects were selected for funding from 31 December 2015 for a period of 36 months.

Publications joint actions
Jahnke et al., Reducing Uncertainty and Confronting Ignorance about the Possible Impacts of Weathering Plastic in the Marine Environment, Environmental Science & Technology Letters 2017 4 (3), 85-90 DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00008 
Kühn, S., et al., The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms, Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.034 

Suaria, G. et al. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters. Sci. Rep. 6, 37551; doi: 10.1038/srep37551 (2016).

Progress

Periodic Report microplastics projects

The periodic reports of the four microplasics projects funded within the framework of JPI Oceans have been delivered to the funding partners and JPI Oceans secretariat. The executive summaries of the reports can be downloaded below


Participating countries

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Ulrich Wolf

flagSPAINSPAIN

Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of the Government of Spain. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness (MINECO)

Contact: Lourdes Armesto

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French National Research Agency (ANR)

Contact: Maurice Heral

flagIRELANDIRELAND

Marine Institute Ireland (MI)

Contact: John Evans

flagITALYITALY

Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR)

Contact: Aldo Covello

flagNETHERLANDSNETHERLANDS

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Contact: Josef F. Stuefer

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPORTUGALPORTUGAL

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Rita Silva

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (HaV)

Contact: Mats Svensson

BASEMAN

Project Facts
Project period: January 2016 - December 2018
Strategic area:
  • Interdisciplinary Research for Good Environmental Status
More Information
Project coordinator:

Gunnar Gerdts, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research
Telephone:+49(4725)819-3245
 E-mail: Gunnar.Gerdts@awi.de

Secretariat contact:

John Hanus
E-mail: hanus@deutsche-meeresforschung.de
Tel. +32 (0) 2 626 16 77

Project website: click here to visit

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About

Although microplastics are recognized as an emerging contaminant in the environment, currently neither sampling, extraction, purification nor identification approaches are standardised, making the increasing numbers of microplastics studies hardly -if at all- comparable. BASEMAN is an interdisciplinary and international collaborative research project that aims to overcome this problem. BASEMAN teams experienced scientists (from different disciplines and countries) to undertake a profound and detailed comparison and evaluation of all approaches from sampling to Identification of microplastics.

Impact

BASEMAN’s project outcomes will equip policy makers with the tools and operational measures required to describe the abundance and distribution of  microplastics in the environment. Such tools will permit evaluation of member state compliance with existing and future monitoring requirements.

Funding partners

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Ulrich Wolf

flagSPAINSPAIN

Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of the Government of Spain. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness (MINECO)

Contact: Lourdes Armesto

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French National Research Agency (ANR)

Contact: Maurice Heral

flagIRELANDIRELAND

Marine Institute Ireland (MI)

Contact: John Evans

flagITALYITALY

Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR)

Contact: Aldo Covello

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPORTUGALPORTUGAL

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Rita Silva

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (HaV)

Contact: Mats Svensson

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

EPHEMARE

Project Facts
Project period: January 2016 - December 2018
Strategic area:
  • Interdisciplinary Research for Good Environmental Status
More Information
Project coordinator:

Prof. Ricardo Beiras
Universidade de Vigo,Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain
Phone:+34 986 812648

Secretariat contact:

John Hanus
E-mail: hanus@deutsche-meeresforschung.de
Tel. +32 (0) 2 626 16 77

Project website: click here to visit

Print view

About

Microplastics show the potential to play a remarkable role in the incorporation and trophic transfer of pollutants into marine food webs. The toxic effects of microplastics on marine organisms are unclear and need further investigation.

EPHEMARE - Ecotoxicological effects of microplastics in marine ecosystems - aims to address this need through a multidisciplinary consortium of 14 Partner Institutes from Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and microplastics experts from the UK. EPHEMARE is one of four approved projects following the 2014 JPI Oceans Pilot Call on ecological effects of microplastics.

EPHEMARE, targets (1) the uptake, tissue distribution, final fate and effects of microplastics in organisms representative of pelagic and benthic ecosystems, and (2) the potential role of microplastics as vectors of model Persistent Pollutants that readily adsorb to their surfaces. The European consortium includes experts in biological effects of marine pollutants at molecular, cellular, physiological and organismic levels, up to-date singular facilities for aquatic toxicity testing under strict conditions, and some of the world leading teams in microplastics research and incorporates capacity to communicate project findings to a range of audiences and stakeholders.

Objectives

EPHEMARE aims to examine the adsorption of chemicals on microplastics, their ingestion, trophic transfer and chemical release, and a wide array of ecotoxicological effects on invertebrates and vertebrates and to communicate the findings of the project to the public, relevant national and international authorities and decision makers. The project is looking for active collaboration with Industry to facilitate mutual learning towards addressing issues associated with microplastics in our oceans and has the following objectives:

  • To investigate the uptake, tissue distribution and final fate of microplastics in organisms representative of pelagic and benthic ecosystems
  • To investigate the potential role of microplastics as vectors of marine pollutants and their trophic transfer in marine food webs.
  • To assess by means of internationally accepted standards and methods (ISO, OECD, ICES, ASTM) whether microplastic accumulation leads to detrimental effects at molecular, cellular, physiological and organism levels.
  • To test the suitability of exposure and effect biochemical, cellular and physiological biomarkers and cutting-edge omics methods to trace MP exposure.
  • To assist public and private stakeholders with the scientific basis for the development and compliance with general environmental regulations concerning chemicals used in plastic production (WFD, MSFD, environmental quality standards, REACH, Directive 2002/72/ECEU and subsequent amendments, Regulation No 10/2011).
  • To raise public awareness on the risks that the less visible plastics pose to marine ecosystems and, eventually, human health.
Funding partners

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Ulrich Wolf

flagSPAINSPAIN

Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of the Government of Spain. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness (MINECO)

Contact: Lourdes Armesto

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French National Research Agency (ANR)

Contact: Maurice Heral

flagIRELANDIRELAND

Marine Institute Ireland (MI)

Contact: John Evans

flagITALYITALY

Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR)

Contact: Aldo Covello

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPORTUGALPORTUGAL

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Rita Silva

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (HaV)

Contact: Mats Svensson

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

PLASTOX

Project Facts
Project period: January 2016 - December 2018
Strategic area:
  • Interdisciplinary Research for Good Environmental Status
More Information
Project coordinator:

Andy Booth, SINTEF
Email: Andy.Booth@sintef.no 

Secretariat contact:

John Hanus
E-mail: hanus@deutsche-meeresforschung.de
Tel. +32 (0) 2 626 16 77

Project website: click here to visit

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About

The PLASTOX project will investigate the ingestion, food-web transfer, and ecotoxicological impact of microplastics, together with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), metals and plastic additive chemicals associated with them, on key European marine species and ecosystems. It will also study the temporal dynamics of microplastics colonisation by microbial communities in the field and the influence of microbial biofilms on ingestion rates and POP toxicity. The influence of microplastics physicochemical properties (size, shape, surface area and composition) on these processes will be evaluated. PLASTOX will combine field-based observations, laboratory tests, mesocosm and manipulative field experiments to study the ecological effects of microplastics.

Impact

PLASTOX will bridge the current gap between laboratory assessment using commercially available feedstock microplastics and the additive-loaded and degrading microplastics which dominate the marine environment. Macro-sized plastic debris collected from the marine environment will be used to generate microplastics derived from real marine litter, providing a common reference material for all project partners. 

Adsorption and desorption of organic and inorganic pollutants to microplastics will be investigated using a range of common POP and metal contaminants. Studies will highlight how adsorption/desorption behavior varies between different contaminants, identifying which physicochemical properties are most influential. Studies will employ optimised laboratory and long-term field experiments at different stations in a wide range of European marine environments (Mediterranean, Adriatic, North, and Baltic Seas and the Atlantic) and in wastewater treatment plant effluents. As an innovative approach, compound-specific stable isotope analysis will be applied to understand the fate and transport of pollutants on microplastics. For microplastics extracted from radiometrically dated sediments, POP and metal determination will offer the first concentration estimates of the levels of pollutants gathered on microplastics over long time spans (10-30 years). 

PLASTOX will investigate uptake through ingestion and other routes following controlled exposures. Microplastic accumulation in marine organism tissues, caused by transport across the gut and cell boundaries, will be studied and attempts made to quantify microplastics accumulation using state of the art analytical approaches. The acute and sublethal ecotoxicological effects of microplastics will be assessed on marine organisms from phyto- and zooplankton to (shell)fish and seabirds, representative of the full range of economically important marine living resources in the EU. Using data and competence generated in these studies, a more detailed understanding of the potential for microplastics transfer between trophic levels, and the subsequent impacts this may have, will be obtained. Finally, PLASTOX will culminate in a series of experiments bringing together the knowledge generated about microplastics and POPs/metals to study the combined fate and effects of these marine contaminants in food web studies. The knowledge generated will be summarized in a guidance document for development of future legislation and remedial efforts.

Funding partners

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Ulrich Wolf

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French National Research Agency (ANR)

Contact: Maurice Heral

flagIRELANDIRELAND

Marine Institute Ireland (MI)

Contact: John Evans

flagITALYITALY

Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR)

Contact: Aldo Covello

flagNETHERLANDSNETHERLANDS

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Contact: Josef F. Stuefer

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPORTUGALPORTUGAL

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Rita Silva

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (HaV)

Contact: Mats Svensson
Publications joint projects
Kühn, S., et al., The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms, Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.034 

WEATHER-MIC

Project Facts
Project period: January 2016 - December 2018
Strategic area:
  • Interdisciplinary Research for Good Environmental Status
More Information
Project coordinator:

Annika Jahnke
E-mail: annika.jahnke@ufz.de

Secretariat contact:

John Hanus
E-mail: hanus@deutsche-meeresforschung.de
Tel. +32 (0) 2 626 16 77

Project website: click here to visit

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About

WEATHER-MIC is one of four approved projects following the 2014 JPI-Oceans Pilot Call on ecological effects of microplastics. Five partners from four European countries form the consortium

Objectives

  • Use artificial weathering in lab experiments combined with non-target chemical analysis and particle imaging to “fingerprint” weathered plastic particles
  • Investigate how weathering processes of MPs influence their vertical distribution, trophic transfer and toxicity (by affecting size distribution, surface morphology, density, aggregation-flocculation behaviour and microbial biofilm communities)
  • Investigate if the 3D spatial distribution from lab-scale column tests can be extrapolated to field data from the Stockholm Archipelago and Oslo Harbour (using sediment transport models parameterized for MPs)
  • Assess toxic effects of weathered MPs by
    • toxicity tests using OECD guidelines adapted for ecotoxicological testing of MP particles
    • changes in biofilm communities
    • cell-based bioassays with MP leachates to identify modes-of-action and to quantify toxicity
  • Develop new tools to incorporate MP weathering into risk assessment of marine MP pollution
Funding partners

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Ulrich Wolf

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (HaV)

Contact: Mats Svensson

European Marine Sensors Calibration Network

Joint Action Facts
Strategic area:
  • Observing, modelling and predicting ocean state and processes
Type of action:
  • Research alliance
  • Knowledge hub
  • Network of people
  • Training
  • Mobility
  • Accessing or sharing of marine infrastructures
  • Access to data
Lead countries:
  • Greece
More Information
Secretariat Contact:

Anastasios Lekkas
E-mail: anastasios.lekkas@itk.ntnu.no
Tel. +32 (0) 26 26 16 66

About

This action aims to establish a permanent working group for calibration activities and will propose a future strategic plan towards a permanent, pan-European calibration grid to support the activities of marine observatories. It involves the research community, the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and industry from the participating countries. The group had its first major meeting in Brest, France, on 13 October 2016 and is now in the process of developing three factsheets (on pH, salinity, and fluorescence) and one white paper summarizing the challenges and justifying the need for this action. The four documents will help identify the next concrete steps for this action.

Objectives

This action deals with the only realistic way to achieve these goals, which involves continuous, responsive, and high-quality calibrating activity. Calibration, unlike validation, which can be performed with various ways and methods, requires standardised techniques and specialised equipment.

As it was revealed through the JERICO project activities and in particular Deliverable 4.1 “Report on existing calibration facilities”, very few observatory operators actually maintain dedicated calibration facilities with trained personnel. Thus very often sensors are shipped to manufacturers on regular basis which is neither convenient nor cost efficient. Moreover maintenance intervals have to be planned according to the requirements of each sensor (need for double sets of sensors). Thus transport and calibration costs often have a major contribution on total running costs. Partners operating calibration facilities often face difficulties in maintaining dedicated personnel positions as funding is variable and rather insecure. Although there is significant experience among European research institutes on calibration methods, at present each lab works independently with no or very little connections with other labs.

Therefore, the development of a pan-European calibration grid is proposed. The grid will be open to the whole marine community and in close connection with the national metrological institutes while in order to maximise benefits and minimise costs it can have a 2 level approach separating calibration procedures into primary and secondary. In the first level, labs capable of handling reference calibration procedures will be identified and appointed as Primary Reference Nodes (PRN) where secondary calibration instruments can be calibrated. Level 2 or Secondary Reference Nodes (SRN) will use the secondary reference instruments calibrated at PRN and will be responsible for the calibration of the day-to-day operational sensors around European Waters.

Impact

Short term:

  • The homogenisation of practices within the oceanographic community,
  • The dissemination of metrology know-how and practices in institutes and firms,
  • The control of the efficiency for the participants of Inter Laboratory Comparisons,
  • The improvement of the quality system and the metrology practices of participants (eg. thanks to audits)
  • The technological directions to follow for the development of new sensors
  • Relevance to the EU’s IMP, MSFD, WFSD, etc.
  • Relevance and support to a large number of initiatives, such as GOOS, GMES, JCOMM, CLIVAR, MyOcean, SeaDatanet, EuroGOOS, JERICO, JERICO-NEXT, FixO3, EURAMET

 

Long Term:

Long-term impacts will be the assessment of strategies in terms of exchanges, collaborations, valorization and dissemination:

  • the development of plans to encourage the transition from research to operational support,
  • the consolidation of quality guarantees to help authorities to implement appropriate strategies (standards, recommendations, policies, regulations, ...)
  • set up of a permanent calibration board in charge of the follow-up of this European Calibration network and of the management and sustainability of its impacts.

Background

Europe spends €1.4 billion p.a. for marine data collection: €0.4 billion for satellite data and €1.0 billion for in-situ observations, respectively. In the case of the latter, the traditional and expensive practice of vessel-based data-gathering is progressively giving way to monitoring via “observatories” - complexes of distributed, autonomous, real-time sensor systems. Burgeoning technology and pressing societal needs will soon make such observatories the backbone of European marine observing activity because of their ability to provide copious quantities of diversified data over large areas at reasonable costs. But to be useful for research and decision-making at a transnational level, all the incoming data have to be comparable and amenable to fitness-for-purpose assessments in relation to specific user-group requirements. This will require measurements to be metrologically sound, and instruments to be working within known specifications at all times despite prolonged deployment in harsh conditions.

Progress

Preparatory Meeting on European Marine Calibration Network

In this preparatory meeting, the participants agreed that the first main step should be to hold a meeting alongside “Sea Tech Week” in Brest, France, with the involvement of the most important stakeholders (research community, National Metrology Institutes (NMIs), industry).  


2nd Meeting on the EMSCN (October 13 2016, Brest)

Basic outcomes: Regarding oceanographic data/measurements, although a few recognized standards are in place, no certified reference material is available. As a result, the oceanographers face great difficulties when it comes to ensuring reliable data acquisition, with inevitable consequences on the quality of the research they conduct. Therefore, one of the thrusts for this action is to ensure manufacturers follow a standard calibration procedure to ensure quality assurance and quality control of the products delivered to the field – a process that could follow the form of a certification procedure. To this end, the National Metrology Institutes can contribute by helping the oceanographers and manufacturers to establish validated metrological procedures. Three factsheets and one white paper are currently composed soto define the next concrete steps of the action.


Participating countries

flagGERMANYGERMANY

National Metrology Institute of Germany (PtB)

Contact: Steffen Seitz

flagFINLANDFINLAND

Finnish Environment Institute (FEI/SYKE)

Contact: Jukka Seppälä

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French Research Institute for Exploration of the Sea (Ifremer)

Contact: Florence Salvetat

French Research Institute for Exploration of the Sea (Ifremer)

Contact: Laurent Delauney

Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE)

Contact: Daniela Stoica

LNE-CNAM

Contact: Fernando Sparasci

Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM)

Contact: Marc Le Menn

flagGREECEGREECE

Hellenic centre for marine research (HCMR)

Contact: George Petihakis

flagITALYITALY

National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS)

Contact: Rajesh Nair

National Institute of Metrological Research (INRIM)

Contact: Michela Sega

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Institute of Marine Research Norway (IMR)

Contact: Henning Wehde

Food and Nutrition Security

Joint Action Facts
Action period: June 2016
Strategic area:
  • Linking oceans, human health and wellbeing
  • Food security and safety driving innovation in a changing world
Type of action:
  • Interacting with ERA-Nets and other activities
Lead countries:
  • Norway
External partners:
  • JPI FACCE
  • JPI HDHL
More Information
Secretariat Contact:

Tom Redd

About

The JPI on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE-JPI) and JPI Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (HDHL) first proposed to address the issue of Food and Nutrition Security as a result of the grand debate during the Milan international EXPO in 2015. They subsequently published the joint paper Priority Joint Actions to contribute to the European Strategy on Food and Nutrition Security. In 2016, JPI Oceans joined the initiative to ensure the entire food system could be addressed. Two expert workshops were held in 2016 to develop this working paper which will be presented to the Management Boards of each JPI.

Food and Nutrition Security bridges a number of Societal Challenges; it encompasses the entire food system (land and sea) from farm to fork. In their Strategic Research Agendas, each JPI (FACCE, HDHL and Oceans) has identified different aspects of this challenge and are now coming together to coordinate efforts in this area. Coordination is needed to bring together different research domains and national and international research investments and to ensure involvement of key actors (consumers, primary producers, industry etc.); to stimulate innovation and implementation. Strong stakeholder involvement in JPIs will facilitate knowledge flow from research towards practice.

Objectives

The coordination between the JPIs aims to define a research programme to address the challenge of Food and Nutrition Security.

In order to achieve sustainable and resilient food systems that provide nutritious food from both land and sea, it is necessary to know both the composition of a nutritious diet and also how climate change will affect food production and the nutritional quality of food, through effects on the quality of agricultural and marine primary products.

With this information, it would be possible to develop effective solutions along the whole food chain. The approach consists of two transversal components: a modeling component and an intervention component consisting of several research activities.

Cross cutting activities should be carried out, including education, outreach, data sharing, standardization and harmonization, to support a knowledge flow from scientific research towards practice. This will support a multidisciplinary approach and ensure the involvement of key stakeholders. Dialogue and co-design with stakeholders is crucial for acceptance and uptake of the research outcomes among the following societal actors:

  • Consumers- awareness and acceptance of the consumer towards foods is key. Aspects to be considered are: nutritional quality, food safety, production methods, sensory aspects, ethical and environmental issues.
  • Industry- Working with industry to increase diversity in feed and food sources to provide greater nutritional qualities and contribute to resilient production systems, to explore food products which are both ethically and economically viable
  • Regulatory authorities- Close cooperation to encourage the authorisation of new products.

 

A set of key indicators needs to be defined in order to monitor the changes.

Impact

The research is expected to contribute to the implementation of the European Commission’s FOOD 2030 initiative, but also to the UN Sustainable Development Goals, by connecting research communities along the entire food value chain to propose adapted, acceptable and sustainable solutions to achieving food and nutrition security. It will promote the building of lasting transdisciplinary coordination across a range of fields. It is expected that the research will help to provide solutions for providing sustainable, resilient food systems for nutritious food from land and sea to feed an ever-changing world.

Background

It is well known that the health, environmental, economic, and societal costs will be substantial if we do not change our course of action when it comes to the food system and the underlying challenge of Food and Nutrition Security.

Ensuring food and nutrition security is a complex issue, requiring an integrated food systems perspective. To achieve food and nutrition security, there is a need to understand what the “ideal diet” is for different specific populations (e.g. elderly, children…) and in different regions to generate profiles of nutritional needs (macro- and micronutrients) and the corresponding diets. There is also a need to understand climate change effects on food composition and the food system as a whole, again looking at macro- and micronutrients in order to develop resilient and sustainable food systems as well as feed for farmed animals on land and sea. With this information available, different interventions should be sought along the whole food value chain to achieving sustainable and resilient food systems – at the level of the farm, of food processing and transformation and at the level of human consumption. Research could include, for example, the potential of diversified food sources, the exploitation of genetic diversity for breeding nutritional and resilient plant and animal food sources, improved management practices, the role of industry and food retailers, with consumer acceptance as the key driver for bringing about change.

Progress

Joint JPI Workshop

It was concluded that the 3 JPIs are willing to collaborate in the field of FNS, and the creation of a working group with members of the 3 JPIs could help the definition of a shared research theme and the preparation of a common document. The successive step would be a second workshop.
It was agreed that the approach to FNS must be undertaken from a global and cross-cutting perspective, and needs to include views and involvement of all the stakeholders acting along the food chain. Some work could be also dedicated to analyse the activities performed in ERA-Nets, in order to avoid overlaps or to find synergies.

Expert Workshop

The workshop aimed to further develop the working document produced during the JPI Workshop. After this workshop, the working paper was updated and presented to the Governing Boards of the three JPIs as well as to the EC (i.e. Food 2030 and WP 2018-2020 H2020) for discussion and decision on implementation/ next steps.


Publication of Joint Paper on Food and Nutrition Security

The three JPI’s published a new paper describing the scope of a proposed joint research programme on Food and Nutrition Security: A Multi-Disciplinary Integrative Food System Approach, which was  adopted by the governing boards of FACCE-JPI, JPI Oceans and JPI HDHL. The paper sets out an approach to Work Towards an Integrated Food System Approach, from Farm to Fork, that Provides Sustainable, Resilient and Nutritional Food from Both Land and Sea.

The paper is available here.


Funders Meeting

Funders from JPIs HDHL, FACCE and OCEANS met to explore the concrete implementation of the joint action by discussing its scope, its expected impacts and the instrument to be used. It was agreed that the three JPIs should work towards developing a Knowledge Hub in the area of Food and Nutrition Security. 
Participating countries

flagSPAINSPAIN

Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of the Government of Spain. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness (MINECO)

Contact: Estrella Fernandez Garcia

flagITALYITALY

National Research Council (CNR)

Contact: Emilio Fortunato Campana

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPORTUGALPORTUGAL

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Sofia Cordeiro

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

Intercalibration for EU Water Framework Directive

Joint Action Facts
Action period: March 2014
Funding: € 279,560
Strategic area:
  • Interdisciplinary Research for Good Environmental Status
  • Observing, modelling and predicting ocean state and processes
Type of action:
  • Joint public procurement
Lead countries:
  • Belgium
More Information
Secretariat Contact:

Wendy Bonne 
E-mail: wendy.bonne@vliz.be
Phone: +32 (0)2626 1669

 

About

The action Joint funding of the Scientific Intercalibration exercise for the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) coastal and transitional waters in the North-East Atlantic brings together scientific experts to perform required analyses in the most cost-efficient way.

Objectives

The JPI Oceans action will add value by:
 
  • finding experienced scientific expert leads to perform required analyses in the most cost-efficient way for phytoplankton and benthic invertebrate fauna (as there are constraints in the availability of experts of national environmental authorities)
  • reducing fragmentation (of comparison calculation efforts) and increase efficiency in relation to the Water (and Marine Strategy) Framework Directive;
  • increasing experience with joint data collection and analysis;
  • testing a mechanism for joint funding from environmental authorities of nine member countries, surpassing the traditional model of joint calls, to obtain the performance improvements.

 

Ten environmental authorities of nine countries (BE, DE, DK, FR, IE, NL, NO, SE, UK) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding and committed budgets to the pilot action. The Portuguese environmental authority will contributes in-kind with 2 expert leads from Portuguese universities.
 
After consultation of the environmental authorities and scientific institutions of JPI Oceans a list of 21 eligible candidates was composed. From the list four experts were selected through a selection procedure. Upon agreement by the environmental authorities, the same expert leads (Michelle Devlin, Iñigo Muxika and Gert Van Hoey) are contracted for the work to be performed for the second MoU in 2015 - 2016. An additional selection procedure has been organised in 2015 to contract experienced scientific experts that will perform and focus on regional analyses for phytoplankton coastal waters (North Sea and Wadden Sea). 

Impact

The intercalibration action will enable a long-term dialogue between environmental authorities and the scientific community of member countries to solve remaining scientific challenges jointly. Furthermore, as comparable environmental assessments are of crucial importance for industry, research on scientifically sound and comparable environmental assessment can be a competitive advantage for Europe.

Background

The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) was adopted in 2000, the purpose being establishment of a framework for protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwater. The overall aim for these surface and groundwater ‘water bodies’ is to achieve good chemical and ecological status by 2015.
 
The essence of intercalibration is to ensure that the definition of ecological status in member countries’ assessment methods for biological quality corresponds to comparable levels of ecosystem alteration. Comparable environmental assessments are of crucial importance for industry to receive equal treatment on environmental sustainability criteria at the European internal market, instead of heterogeneous assessment levels and protection measures.
 
Significant gaps still exist despite two phases of intercalibration for coastal and transitional waters. A review concluded that a degree of unevenness in the results of intercalibration across Europe reflects differences in the degree to which nations have been politically willing, and/or economically able, to prioritise basic and applied aquatic research and invest in water resource management.*
 
In the past, the expert leads that performed intercalibration comparisons were provided by in-kind contributions of a few member countries. This loaded specific member countries with a lot of responsibility on complex analytical problems, due to the complexity of the analyses and the nature of coastal and transitional waters, without organisational support in performing the required analyses in a cost-efficient way.
Participating countries

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Flanders Environment Agency (VMM)

Contact: Veronique Van Den Langenbergh

Flanders Environment Agency (VMM)

Contact: Wim Gabriels

Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Belgium

Contact: Michael Kyramarios

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

Flemish Government, Department Economy Science and Innovation (EWI)

Contact: Gert Verreet

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Lower Saxony Water Management, Coastal Defence and Nature Conservation Agency (NLWKN)

Contact: Jan Witt

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation und Nuclear Safety (BMUB)

Contact: Axel Borchmann

flagDENMARKDENMARK

Danish Nature Agency

Contact: Sara Røpke

Danish Nature Agency

Contact: Ivan Karottki

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environments (ONEMA)

Contact: Marie Claude Ximenes

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy (MEEM)

Contact: Isabelle Terrier

flagUNITED KINGDOMUNITED KINGDOM

Environment Agency UK (EA)

Contact: Alison Miles

flagIRELANDIRELAND

Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland (EPA)

Contact: Shane O’Boyle

Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland (EPA)

Contact: Robert Wilkes

flagNETHERLANDSNETHERLANDS

Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment - Directorate-general for Spatial Development and Water Affairs

Contact: Hans Ruiter

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Norwegian Environment Agency

Contact: Maria Pettersvik Arvnes

Norwegian Environment Agency

Contact: Steinar Sandoy

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (HaV)

Contact: Anneli Harlen

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (HaV)

Contact: Jonas Svensson

MarTERA: ERA-NET Cofund on Marine/Maritime Technologies

Joint Action Facts
Action period: December 2016
Funding: € 30,000,000
Strategic area:
  • Technology, Platforms and Sensor Development
Type of action:
  • Joint call
  • Research alliance
  • Knowledge hub
  • Network of people
  • Interacting with ERA-Nets and other activities
  • Training
Lead countries:
  • Germany
More Information
Secretariat Contact:

Hanna Lee Behrens
E-mail:hlb@forskningsradet.no

About

The overall goal of the MarTERA Cofund is to strengthen the European Research Area (ERA) in maritime and marine technologies and Blue Growth. The proposing consortium will organise and co-fund together with the EU a joint call for trans-national research projects on different thematic areas of Blue Growth. Furthermore, additional joint activities that go beyond this co-funded call are planned, in order to contribute to the national priorities as well as to the strategic research agenda of JPI Oceans and WATERBORNE. The consortium launched the first cofunded call in December 2016 with a budget of 30 million Euro, where the participating countries contribute with 20 million Euro and the European Commission allocates 10 million Euro. MarTERA will implement the Call 2017 as a two-step procedure (a pre-proposal and a full-proposal step). The deadline for submission of pre-proposals is 31 March 2017. 

MarTERA organised a brokerage event on 15 February. The event presented the MarTERA Call on maritime and marine technologies and allowed participants to network and identify partners to apply for the call. 

Objectives

The main objective of MarTERA is to address a number of actual challenges that can be identified as follows:

  • National and European research in several marine and maritime sectors is often poorly coordinated. Synergies towards implementing common goals could only be achieved through better coordination and harmonizing the foci of funding programmes; 

  • While collaborative projects funded by the EC are often quite large and complex to attract participation especially of SMEs, national funding schemes offer limited opportunities to collaborate with foreign partners, especially if cross-border funding is impossible; 

  • The participation in trans-national projects offers advantages by using respective national funding, to tackle complex projects which cannot be accomplished by one nation alone; 

  • Transnational projects provide a better chance for innovation to enter into new markets; 

  • The cross-cutting perspective in technology development can lead to innovations capable of benefiting more than one sector, hence increasing the impact of the funded trans-national 
projects. 

  • Bringing industry and research actors across borders together will strengthen Europe’s 
economic position underpinning Blue Growth. 

  • Through trans-national cooperation it is feasible to create critical mass and focus excellence on precompetitive breakthroughs, which can benefit marine and maritime industries in general and make them more competitive in the longer term, thereby maintaining Europe’s competitive edge. 

  • To create critical mass and address the needs for technologies in maritime operations.

Impact

  • Bring new knowledge-intensive products and services for marine and maritime activities to the market.
  • Increase the resource efficiency, security, safety and environmental compliance of maritime activities. 

  • Help implement the European strategy on Key Enabling Technologies (KETs), in particular with regards to advanced materials and manufacturing. 

  • Support trans-national, pan European research networks and synergies
  • among national/regional and European EU research programmes

  • Facilitate economies of scale and research investment efficiency by better alining national/regional research programmes, in particular within the Joint Programming Initiative “Healthy and Productive Seas and Oceans”.
  • Strengthening the dissemination of maritime and marine research results at the national and European level.

Background

Sectors with a high potential for sustainable blue economy like waterborne transport, shipbuilding & ship repair, offshore and sub-sea activities, monitoring and observations, can support sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors as a whole and use the potential of Europe’s oceans, seas and coasts for jobs, value and sustainability. Technological breakthroughs are of importance for improving ocean governance, which is by itself a big market for maritime industries recalling that European countries spend approximately 1 billion Euros annually on purchasing and running infrastructure to monitor the seas and oceans.

Research and innovation activities in these fields cannot be tackled either at national levels alone, or by a single sector alone. Coordinated actions are required for the maritime industry to strengthen Europe’s position in this important and complex economic field in a global market. Concentrated and targeted Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) funding on common research priorities will foster maritime and marine technologies in Europe. In this highly competitive sector networking, trans- national collaboration and joint initiatives are the keys to success.

Participating countries

flagARGENTINAARGENTINA

Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation (MINCYT)

Contact: Monica Silenzi

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship (VLAIO)

Contact: Jozef Ghijselen

flagBELARUSBELARUS

National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (NAS)

Contact: Natalia Yankevich

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Filiz Aslan

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Ralf Fiedler

flagFRANCEFRANCE

French National Research Agency (ANR)

Contact: Christine King

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy (MEEM)

Contact: Patrick Vidal

flagIRELANDIRELAND

Marine Institute Ireland (MI)

Contact: Ciaran Kelly

flagITALYITALY

Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR)

Contact: Aldo Covello

Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR)

Contact: Grazia Pavoncello

Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR)

Contact: Giorgio Carpino

flagMALTAMALTA

Malta Council for Science and Technology

Contact: Allanah Bonnici

flagNETHERLANDSNETHERLANDS

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Contact: Josef F. Stuefer

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPOLANDPOLAND

National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR)

Contact: Karolina Janczykowska

flagPORTUGALPORTUGAL

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Joana Pinheiro

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Contact: Gonçalo Zagalo

flagTURKEYTURKEY

Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK)

Contact: Burak Kaya

flagSOUTH AFRICASOUTH AFRICA

Department of Science and Technology (DST)

Contact: Isayvani Naicker

Multi use of infrastructure for monitoring

Joint Action Facts
Action period: October 2012
Strategic area:
  • Observing, modelling and predicting ocean state and processes
Type of action:
  • Accessing or sharing of marine infrastructures
Lead countries:
  • Netherlands
More Information
Secretariat Contact:

Wendy Bonne 
E-mail: wendy.bonne@vliz.be
Phone: +32 (0)2 626 16 69

 

About

The pilot action Multi use of Infrastructure for Monitoring in the North Sea was proposed by The Netherlands in 2012.The action resulted in a workshop between scientists and funding bodies in 2013 and additional monitoring during various International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) cruises in 2014.

Objectives

The action picked a number of indicators that require monitoring activities, to be added to current (fish stock) monitoring programmes. The intention was to develop pilot studies to test these on current monitoring activities as soon as possible. The process of organising the pilot, the needs (budgets, equipment, time) and the limitations (vessels, crew, permits) was of more interest than the actual data collected at sea. Such information was a useful input for the project of DG Environment to be able to calculate costs and design an efficient integrated monitoring programme.

The overall approach of the pilot action was directed towards the following three components: (1) setting up integrated monitoring surveys, (2) enhancing integration of monitoring efforts and (3) promoting data sharing and integrated information systems. The pilot action focused on integrated surveys but also considered the requirements of the other components during implementation. The basic requirements for the approach were as follows:

  • Design future (fish stock) monitoring surveys to incorporate both the needs of the CFP (Common Fisheries Policy) through the EU (Data Collection Framework) within the frame of the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF) and the MSFD (Marine Strategy Framework Directive);
  • Incorporate flexible, adaptive elements to the approach, allowing for the implementation of future needs as they emerge;
  • Coordinate survey planning at the international level and at the scale of sea basins.


As such the pilot action aimed at incorporating monitoring for MSFD descriptors in the current International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS). The IBTS survey is coordinated internationally by experts from Germany, France, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, executed twice a year (first and third quarter of the year) covering the Greater North Sea.

Impact

  • Workshop between scientific experts and funding bodies from interested countries on 9 November 2013.
  • Additional monitoring proposals made at this workshop- of which a number were tried out by 7 countries during various IBTS cruises in 2014 (extending the 1st experience in 2013).
  • The experiments at sea have resulted in some simple overviews of costs related to more integrated monitoring.
  • The whole process has given an impression of issues and problems related to organising additional monitoring (funded or not from outside the regular funding for the survey) for Incorporating flexible, adaptive elements to the traditional approach, allowing for the implementation of future needs as they emerge. 

Background

A long history of monitoring of the marine environment in the North Sea exists, including oceanographic, hydrographic, biological and human impact monitoring programmes. Some of these programmes have been active consistently and have produced very valuable time-series, while others monitored irregularly or only in case of opportunities. The degree of organisation and coordination differs.
 
Current policy developments and related European and national legal obligations (e.g. MSFD) increase the requirements to monitoring programmess. Indicators have been proposed in order to monitor the status of the environment, requiring additions to or extensions of current monitoring programmes or new innovative programmes. 
 
To make best use of each Euro spent, international collaboration is recommended to coordinate the North Sea monitoring activities, crossing national borders. Preparations for this were taken care of by the project of DG Environment (DG ENV) on ‘New knowledge for integrated management of human activity in the sea’. The project made an initial inventory of the needs for joint data acquisition, measurement standards, measurement techniques and (common) sampling locations. In that regard it identified synergies and redundancies and serve as a basis for joint data collection efforts.
 
However, the theorethical exercise proposed in the project of DG ENV required input from the field to become aware of the obstacles and the limitations of monitoring platforms and measurement techniques. This is where the pilot action played a role.
Participating countries

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

flagDENMARKDENMARK

National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Denmark (DTU Aqua)

Contact: Fritz Koster

flagUNITED KINGDOMUNITED KINGDOM

Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)

Contact: Rodney Forster

flagNETHERLANDSNETHERLANDS

Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I)

Contact: Thamar Kok

flagNORWAYNORWAY

Institute of Marine Research Norway (IMR)

Contact: Richard Nash 

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

Munition in the sea

Joint Action Facts
Action period: November 2015
Strategic area:
  • Interdisciplinary Research for Good Environmental Status
Lead countries:
  • Italy
More Information
Secretariat Contact:

Pier Francesco Moretti
E-mail: pierfrancesco.moretti@cnr.it
Tel. +32 (0) 2 290 22 84

About

This JPI Oceans action on munition in the sea was first proposed by the Strategic Advisory Board in April 2014, then addressed by the Management board in April 2015 and finally approved in November 2015.  The aim of the action is to assess risks, define priorities and suggest intervention options with regards to munition in the marine environment. The outcomes of the action will be used to support identification, monitoring and elimination of threats through a more systematic approach.

Objectives

As a result of discussions between the most relevant stakeholders, it has been decided that JPI Oceans will conduct activities along three lines:
 
Science Support- By combining different scientific disciplines, JPI Oceans intends to support the development of a service to forecast changes in the sea state in relation to munitions. Simulation of the impact of removal, dispersion and detonation on human health, on the environment, and on economic activities will also be investigated.
 
Technology Transfer- JPI Oceans will analyse different technologies and procedures for intervention to support decisions by operators and policy makers. The development demonstration of technologies and procedures can be used to increase safety, improve the efficacy and reduce the environmental impacts of interventions. JPI Oceans will provide support to exchange findings between different disciplines, projects and initiatives.
 
Exchange of Knowledge- Panels of experts will support transfer of knowledge and experiences of dealing with munitions in the sea.

Impact

A. Science Support: provision of services to support operators and provide risk-assessment, through:
- use of 3D numerical models to provide meaningful data for the risks effect of shallow/deep water explosions, chemical leakage, diver visibility, sediment transport; impacts of blast waves and underwater sounds generated from controlled and spontaneous detonations; estimate of corrosion phenomena and consequences; recognition and identification of munitions, increasing the accuracy and efficiency in the post-processing of sonar and visual data. 
 
B. Technology Transfer:  technology transfer and development of new technologies for
- high resolution sea bed mapping, acoustic, magnetic and visual, measure sea conditions and marine ecosystems; mitigate effects of blast waves and underwater sounds from controlled detonations on marine life and infrastructure; autonomous and robotic systems, chemical sensors for aquatic systems and assessment of health of marine ecosystems; safety conditions for operations on the sea floor along with confirmed procedures to monitor the release of toxic compounds; protect current infrastructures and improve safety for new; avoid the introduction of potentially harmful chemicals into the human food web via aqua culture facilities; defense and national security.
 
C. Exchange of Practices and Knowledge 
Science–to–policy transfer, with knowledge support to select best options; improvement of  existing knowledge base, method unification and intercalibration; exchange of practices, unification of guidelines; improvement of personal skills of experts.
 

Background

Large quantities of conventional and chemical weapons have been dumped in European seas throughout the 20th century, particularly in the aftermath of the first and second world wars as well as of the recent conflicts in the Balkan area. The problem of dumped munitions is understood within the European region, but they are not currently seen as a high priority for scientific research. Being a sensitive subject, it is sometimes difficult to coordinate activities internationally and across scientific disciplines.
 
Munitions in the sea pose a number of risks to human safety and wellbeing, environmental integrity and economic activity. Research into the effects of conventional and chemical weapons has shown the negative impacts on marine life, which in turn has implications for human health. Over time, the degradation of shell casings and containers leads to instability in dumped munitions. Coupled with the intensification of the use of marine space for economic and social activities inevitably increases the likelihood of harm. A coordinated transnational response could increase the efficiency and effectiveness of interventions by sharing experience and skills across Europe.
Progress

Review of End-users priorities

Due to the diversity and complexity of activity and stakeholders end-users priorities have been collected in order to facilitate the identification of relevant joint activities and the selection of the stakeholders to be involved.


Participating countries

flagBELGIUMBELGIUM

Federal Public Planning Service Science Policy (BELSPO)

Contact: David Cox

flagGERMANYGERMANY

Research Centre Juelich (JÜLICH)

Contact: Joachim Harms

flagSPAINSPAIN

Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of the Government of Spain. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness (MINECO)

Contact: David González

Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of the Government of Spain. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness (MINECO)

Contact: Estrella Fernandez Garcia

flagUNITED KINGDOMUNITED KINGDOM

Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)

Contact: Caron Montgomery

Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)

Contact: Tarquin Dorrington

National Oceanography Centre (SOTON-NOCS)

Contact: Ed Hill

Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

Contact: Mike Webb

flagGREECEGREECE

Hellenic centre for marine research (HCMR)

Contact: Vangelis Papathanasiou

Ministry of development; General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT)

Contact: Chrysoula Diamanti

flagIRELANDIRELAND

Marine Institute Ireland (MI)

Contact: Peter Heffernan

Marine Institute Ireland (MI)

Contact: Caroline Bocquel

Marine Institute Ireland (MI)

Contact: Ciaran Kelly

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National Research Council (CNR)

Contact: Emilio Fortunato Campana

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Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Contact: Josef F. Stuefer

Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I)

Contact: Thamar Kok

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Contact: Bernard Westerop

Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I)

Contact: Nancy Meijers

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Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Christina Abildgaard

Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs

Contact: Jartrud Steinsli

Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs

Contact: Arne Benjaminsen

Research Council of Norway (RCN)

Contact: Kristin E. Thorud

flagPOLANDPOLAND

Polish Academy of Sciences; Institute of Hydroengineering (IBW PAN)

Contact: Grzegorz Różyński

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University of Porto

Contact: João Borges de Sousa

flagSWEDENSWEDEN

Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS)

Contact: Lisa Almesjö

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (HaV)

Contact: Anna Jöborn

JPI Oceans   •   Rue du Trône 130, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Tel. +32 (0)2 626 16 60   •   Fax: +32 (0)2 626 16 61   •   jpioceans@rcn.no
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